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History of Computers

This is a searchable directory about the history of computers, computing and a timeline of the history of computers and early calculating machines has been included. Our timeline includes developments in the 1600's and their impact on computing. The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify. (The abacus was one of the first counting machines. Calculating machines were sold commercially before the advent of steel manufacturing technologies. Papyrus was something to write on, before we had paper. Writing was a way to record mathematical calculations.) This history of computers site includes the names of early pioneers of math and computing and links to related sites for further study. A new "Timeline of the History of Computers and Related Technologies" has been added. This site was designed to be used by students assigned topics about the history of computers and computing. Original articles are footnoted and related links are included. One important purpose of this Web page, is to debunk myths some people create, such as "we have computers because of the military" (Not true). We have computers because man wanted to quantify as early as the ancient Chinese Dynasties, when they created the abacus and used it for calculating, and adding and subtracting in particular... Babbage and Lovelace were "programming" machines as early as the 1800's before any military computer in this country. 1801 was the creation of the Jacquard loom which used "punch cards". Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) have been around since 1885 and the US gov't first used a computer in the 1950's. Great Britain's COLOSSUS was developed before the ENGIGMA, so people trying to perpetuate the importance of the US military in the development of computer technologies is doing a disservice to students. Electronics and related computer development, and the invention of the transistor were all independent of military intent. If anything, even the totalisator machines were created for statistical purposes and have been used for horse racing, not rocket science. I love my Mac, and it has no military background that I am aware of. Military computers did not have integrated circuits like PC computer chips either... Stop saying computer development was military in origin... simply can't back it up with fact. Yes, the military also had old computers, just like my Commodore was old... but they weren't related... no tubes in my commodore, that was different technology altogether than a military monster computer with vacuum tubes... mechanical relays... ta dah... that was hot stuff in that age.

 

 
[A]  [B]  [C]  [D]  [E]  [F]  [G]  [H]  [I]  [J]  [K]  [L]  [M
[N]  [O]  [P]  [Q]  [R]  [S]  [T]  [U]  [V]  [W]  [X]  [Y]  [Z]

 
-A-
ABACUS
The Abacus  (Hitmill.com: Good pictures, overview, brief history, definition, counting boards, bibliography, and links for further study)
A Brief History of the Abacus
 
ADA , the programming language.
Ada was a US governmental (DoD) developed programming language. The standard was originally known as Ada83, but this is now obsolete, as it was recently "overhauled" and re-born as Ada95. This is now the preferred standard and implementation of the Ada programming language. Read more about it:
Ada Programming at U. of Mich.
Ada Programming Resources (Hitmill.com) Introduction to Ada95 (embedded.com)
Mission Critical Programming Concepts with Ada95: Introduction to the Ada Programming Language Training Class (ddci.com)
 
AIKEN, HOWARD HATHAWAY
Howard Hathaway Aiken and the Mark I
Howard Aiken: Makin' A Computer Wonder
Howard Hathaway Aiken, Computer Pioneer
Howard Aiken's Harvard Mark I
 
ALTAIR Computer
Altair 8800 (Wikipedia)
Introduction The Revolution Begins (David Bunnell)
The Altair 8800 and Ed Roberts
Altair History (onlineethics.org)
Early History of the Personal Computer (by Thayer Watkins at San Jose State University)
Brief History of the Altair (highgate.comm.sfu.ca)
The Virtual Altair Museum"
Ed Roberts Interview (virualaltair.com)
What Good is a Computer Without Software? (virtualaltair.com)
How the Personal Computer Was Born (sas.org)
Looking Back on Nearly Three Decades of Personal Computing (by Forrest M. Mims III)
Ed Roberts and the MITS Altair
How the Altair Began (by Stan Veit, the Computer Editor of Popular Electronics Magazine)
Chronology of Personal Computers 1975
Open Letter to Hobbyists from Bill Gates, February 3, 1976
PDF copy of An Open Letter To Hobbyists
Ramblings From Ed Roberts, March 1976
 
ANALYTICAL ENGINE
The Analytical Engine, Table of Contents
Analytical Engine/Babbage
 
APPLE/MACINTOSH
Apple Computer history (apple-history.com)
Steve Jobs Information Page
Woz.org
Making the Macintosh (stanford.edu)
The Apple Museum (theapplemuseum.com)
Books on Apple History
MacPicks (Mac News, Reviews, E-zines)
MacPlaces
 
Apple Computer (company) History by Silicon Valley Historical
Apple Operating Systems ListedNote that Apple released Lion OS X in mid-July of 2011 without much fanfare. (hitmill's note)
ARPA, Forerunner of ARPANET and the Internet  See also WEB and INTERNET, KLEINROCK, LIPLIDER, CERF, topics.
ARPA: The Early Days of ARPA, Forerunner of the Internet
 
ATANASOFF, JOHN VINCENT
The John Vincent Atanasoff Virtual Archive
Iowa State University Department of Computer Science, birthplace of the electronic digital computer.
Atanasoff Biography (Hien Chris Do)
Washington Post Obituary
Secret of a Genius: Drive Fast and Don't Look Back
(This is an article about John Atanasoff.)
Inventors of the Modern Computer
This article from the Minining Company discusses the Atanasoff-Berry Computer,
John Vincent Atanasoff, and Clifford Berry.
ATANASOFF-BERRY COMPUTER
Reconstruction of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer
(Article from Ames Lab)
ABC Public Showings: November 1996 and October 1997
 
-B-
 
BABBAGE, CHARLES
Charles Babbage (1791-1871 was born 26 Dec 1791, the son of a London banker. In his youth he had his own private instructor in algebra and by the time he attended Trinity College, Cambridge, he was advanced in knowledge beyond his tutors in mathematics. In 1811, he co-founded the Analytical Society to promote continental mathematics and to reform the mathematics of Newton taught at the University at that time. He worked on the calculus of functions in his twenties. After being elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816, Babbage played a role in the development of the Astronomical Society in 1820. In 1821 he invented the Difference Engine to compile mathematical tables. The Difference Engine was completed in 1832. Then he began work on a machine that could do any type of calculation, and this machine was the Analytical Engine completed about 1856. To learn more about Charles Babbage and his contributions to society, mathetics, engineering, astronomy, and more.... see the following links:
Pioneers: Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage Biographical Notes
The Babbage Pges: Biography
Babbage's Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage Institute (U. of Minn.)
Charles Babbage - Bibliographical notes  (cs.vt.edu)
Picture of Charles Babbage (cs.vt.edu)
 
BACKUS, JOHN
Biography of John Backus  Leader of the team that developed Fortran programming language
John Backus, Recipient of Alan M. Turing Award
 
BELL, GORDON
Gordon Bell Microsoft Bay Area Research Center; worked on design of PDP-6 at DEC, an antecedent of the PDP-10, one of the first mPs and the first time-sharing computer.
MyLifeBits Project: Vannevar Bush's 1945 Memex Vision Fulfilled (research.microsoft.com)
 
BOOLE, GEORGE
George Boole - Genius of Lincoln (Roger Parsons)
The Calculus of Logic by George Boole (maths.tcd.ie)
Papers by George Boole (ucc.ie - University Library County Cork, Ireland)
George Boole Invents Boolean Algebra
George Boole, Biographical Notes (st-and.ac.uk)
 
BRICKLIN, DANIEL (Co-Creator of VisiCalc)
Daniel Bricklin, First Spreadsheet,VisiCalc
Daniel Bricklin's Web Page
Daniel Bricklin Biography, Long Form

 
BUNNELL, DAVID (Altair, MITS, PC Mag., PC World, MacWorld)
The Third Culture: David Bunnell (edge.org)
Prosumer Media
Upside Tech Magazine's Downside (S.F. Chronicle)
 
BUSH, VANNEVAR
As We May Think (by permission of theatlantic.com)
Article of 1945 by Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush Biographical Notes (www.iath.virginia.edu)
Vannevar Bush (livinginternet.com)
 
BYRON, LADY AUGUSTA ADA
Ada Byron (Yale.edu, contributed by Dr. Betty Toole)
Ada's Notes Contributed by Dr. Betty Toole, Yale.Edu
The Birth of the Computer Revolution Yale.edu
Pictures of Lady Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace
 
-C-
 
C++ Programming Language
History of the C++ Programming Language (hitmill.com with information from Bjarne Stroustrup)
History of C++ (cplusplus.com)
 
CALCULATORS
Timeline History of Calculators
Calculator Reference, Research Page
 
CERF, VINTON G. Co-inventor of TCP/IP Protocol for the Internet
ICANN Biographical Notes about Vinton G. Cerf
Vint's Personal Home Page Read about the first 35 years of the "Internet"
How the Internet Came to Be as told by Vinton Cerf
Vinton G. Cerf (isoc.org)
Vinton G. Cerf (Wikipedia page)
Vinton Cerf on the future of e-mail (ComputerWorld: 2001 article)
From Inventing the Enterprise: Vinton G. Cerf (cio.com)

 
CODD, EDGAR F. Database Pioneer, Key Theorist of Databases
Edgar Codd, Database Pioneer, Dead at 79 (usatoday.com)
Edgar Codd, Key Theorist of Databases Dies at 79 in Florida
 
COLOSSUS
The Colossus Rebuild Project (codesandciphers.org.uk)
The Colossus Rebuild Project (project-x.org.uk)
Lorenz Ciphers and the Colossus
1940-1944 The Colossus
Colossus Electronic Programmable (to a limited extent) Computer
Colossus Computer
 
COMPUTER HISTORY  DIRECTORIES (submitted to, and approved by Hitmill.com for student use.) Criteria: References listed. No photo plageurism. Copyright respected. No commercialism, as pages are used in the World's classrooms.
 
Chronology of Personal Computers (Ken Polsson)
Computing Science, History of
Computers: From the Past to the Present
 
History of Computing Information this Web author would have you believe that computers are here because of the military but the USA wasn't even a thought yet when Babbage and Lovelace were working on and programming machines before the Industrial Revolution, before the production of steel, so the "because of the Army or because of the military is all wet... Eisenhower was President when Russian launched Sputnik and that was a scientific embarassment. In late 1957 (October) Sputnik was launched. It didn't take long for the President to ask for and for Congress to vote to create ARPA. (See ARPA links) Later, a branch off of ARPA became NASA and they used computers but projects were space oriented.. ARPANET was the non-military branch that created the Internet nodes, first being at the non-military UCLA. The ARMY could have computers because of pre-exisiting technologies that had no prior connection with the military. Stop giving the military the credit for having computers... The military had a need and had computers built to fill a need, but none of the technologies up until then had to do with the military's think tank... The inventors were independent of the US military, or had been civililians when asked to help the military to build the computers.
 
A Brief History of Computers and Networks (GoldenInk.Com)
Computer Conservation Society
Computer Conservation Society
 
-D-

DIFFERENCE ENGINE of BABBAGE(Prior to the Analytical Engine) Babbage Difference Engine;
Computer History Museum comments on the Babbage Difference Engine;
Difference Engine (at Wikipedia);
Video: Babbage's Difference Engine #2;

 
DIGITAL IMAGE Software for home users as applied to Computers, Computer Technologies, Home User Image Software
Mona Lisa, Digital Image from 1965
A Brief History of Digital Imaging
 
Home of Adobe Software
  Blurb.com image products from your home images. Home of Apple Computer and Software  iPhoto, iMovie, Aperture, GarageBand podcasts, image books with iPhoto and Aperture
DIJKSTRA, EDSGER WYBE Mathematician, Computer Scientist,
  Shortest Path Algorithm, Computer Programmer, Educator

Dijkstra, Edsger   and his Shortest Path Algorithm (topic: Programming)
Biographical Notes: Edsger W. Dijkstra (Wipikedia.org)
Edsger Dijkstra, The shortest-path algorithm
Dijkstra's Algorith (Wikipedia.org)
E. W. Dijkstra Archive (utexas.edu)
Dijkstra's Algorith (uwa.edu.au)
GoTo Statement Considered Harmful by Edsger Dijkstra, 1968;
   Article began the structured programming movement.
How Do We Tell Truths that Might Hurt? by Edsger Dijkstra, 1975:
  On old problems in programming
Edsger Dijkstra on universities
Edsger Dijkstra:RIP (death notice) -E-
ECKERT, J. PRESPER
J. Presper Eckert Interview
The Eckert/ENIAC Collection
 
ENGLEBART, DOUGLAS C.
AUGMENTING HUMAN INTELLECT: A Conceptual Framework A summary report prepared by Douglas C. Englebart for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, October 1962.
Original Computer Mouse Patent
Computer Mouse Demo (video info.)
Facts About the Invention of the Computer Mouse
The Computer Mouse
The Mousesite - a resource for exploring the history of human computer interaction beginning with the pioneering work of Douglas Engelbart and his colleagues at Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s.
 
ENIAC
The ENIAC Story (army.mil)
A Report on the ENAIC (army.mil)
ENAIC - The Army Sponsored Revolution (army.mil)
John W. Mauchly and the Development of the ENIAC Computer (upenn.edu)
The Eniac (about.com)
ENIAC Computer Invention (ideafinder.com)
Jean Bartik, The First ENIAC Programmer
 
Ethernet
Networking With Ethernet (entertainmentdesignmag.com)
 
-F-

Fibonnaci Numbers
Fibonnaci Numbers Definition
Fibonnaci Numbers and the Golden Section
 
-F, G-
First, Second, Third, and Fourth Generation Computers
Features of each generation are discussed.
 
-G-
 
Google.Com's Computer History Links
Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present
Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century
 
GATES, WILLIAM H III
An Open Letter To Hobbyists, by Bill Gates
Bill Gate's Web Page at Microsoft
Bill Gates: Biog. notes and p;icture
The "Unofficial" Bill Gates page
Focus Magazine's Interview with Bill Gates
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
An Open Letter to Hobbyists - by Bill Gates, 1976 (blinkenlights.com)
William H. Gates III Before Microsoft
Bill Gates Wealth Index
 
GOOD, IRVING JOHN (JACK)
Roanoke Times Article about Jack Good, a memeber of the team that broke the ENIGMA code during WWII
Irving John (Jack) Good Cryptologist, statistician
 
GORE, AL
Al Gore's Support of the Internet
    by Robert E. Kahn and Vinton G. Cerf
Gore to Get Lifetime Award for Internet
Gore Never Did Claim That He Invented the Internet
 
GOSLING, JAMES wrote the Java programming language From Inventing the Enterprise: James Gosling (cio.com)
James Gosling, On the Java Road
Java - James Gosling (about.com)
 
Graphical User Interface
Graphical User Interface
History of the Graphical User Interface
Graphical User Interface, GUI (apple-history.com)
Mac OS X
Aqua Human Interface Guidelines (developer.apple.com)
GUI Gallery
The History of Graphical User Interfaces
 
-H-
 
Historic Computer Images (army.mil)
History of Computers Article by aleembawany.com
History of Computer Viruses and Attacks (securityfocus.com)
History of Computing (ei.cs.vt.edu)
A compiled directory of categorical links.
History of Computing: Virtual Museum of Computing (VMoC)
This site is a virtual museum which includes an eclectic collection of WWW hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits.
History of the Internet (Roads and Crossroads of Internet History (Gregory Gromov's site)
History of the Web Beginning at CERN
 
HOPPER, GRACE
Grace Hopper
The Wit and Wisdom of Grace Hopper
Inventing the Enterprise: Grace Murray Hopper (cio.com)
 
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard, History -- Founding Fathers
The Making of Hewlitt-Packard
Dave Packard's 11 Simple Rules
 
-I-
 
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Industrial Revolution">Industrial Revolution, and Factors Leading to
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Internet History: Roads and Crossroads of Internet History (Gregory Gromov)
 
IBM
IBM Vintage Personal Computers
 
IEEE
IEEE/ISTO Industry Standards and Technology Organization
IEEE Computer Society Home Portal
IEEE Computer Society History of Computing
IEEE Annals of Computer History
IEEE 802.11b - Wireless Ethernet Article by Al Petrick, Vice Chairman of the IEEE 802.11 Standards Committee
 
INTERNET History of the Internet by computerhope.com/
 
Internet Pioneers The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in 1959 by an Act of Congress. In 1962 J.C.R.Licklider went to work for ARPA and it was his suggestion that a computer network be established. Read about the events that unfolded.
 
Net Valley's History of the Internet, Web, Silicon Valley.
The Dotcom Bubble Over-Inflation of valuation and what happened.
Internet Explorer
The History of Internet Explorer
 
-J-
JACQUARD, JOSEPH-MARIE
Book:  Jacquard's Web: How a Hand Loom Led to the Birth of the Information Age by James Essinger. Read about this book at Amazon.com
Jacquard Loom
The Jacquard Loom (columbia.edu)
Jacquard's Punched Card
Industrial Revolution: Timeline of Textile Machinery
Biographical Note on Joseph-Marie Jacquard
Biography of Joseph-Marie Jacquard
 
JOBS, STEVE PAUL
Steve Paul Jobs Bio.
 
-K-
KAHN, ROBERT E (co-inventor of TCP/IP Technology for Internet)
Robert E. Kahn Biographical Notes
Robert E. Kahn Awarded National Medal of Technology
 
KING, ADA BYRON
(See BYRON, AUGUSTA ADA)
 
KLEINROCK, LEONARD
Leonard Kleinrock Biography: The Birth of the Internet (ucla.edu)
Leonard Kleinrock was the inventor of the Internet technology known as packet-switching.
Leonard Kleinrock's home page
 
-L-
LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED von
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
 
LICKLIDER, J.C.R.
Man-Computer Symbiosis by J.C.R. Licklider (PDF file, Memex.org)
The Computer as a Communication Device (PDF file, Memex.org)
by J.C.R. Licklider and Robert Taylor (of ARPA)
JCR Licklider (columbia.edu)
J.C.R. Licklider Biography (thocp.net)
J.C.R. Licklider (livinginternet.com)
Six degrees of J.C.R. Licklider traces computer evolution (St.Louis Post Dispatch/wustl.edu)
J.C.R. Licklider in Memoriam (MIT.edu)
The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (book, by M. Mitchell Waldrop -- see Amazon.com book site)
 
-M-
 
Mind Machine Museum (SFSU.edu)

 
MAUCHLY, JOHN W.
John W. Mauchly and the Development of the ENIAC Computer
 
METCALF, ROBERT M. Ethernet
From Inventing the Enterprise: Robert M. Metcalf (cio.com)
Ethernet (acm.org)
Ethernet PDF Paper: IEEE 802.3

 
Mouse
(See also: Englebart, Douglas)
The Mouse Site
 
-N-
NELSON, TED
Project Xanadu
The original hypertext project...
Ted Nelson home page
 
NYGAARD, KRISTEN
Notes About Kristen Nygaard
 
-O-
 
OPERATING SYSTEMS are considered part of Software of the computer.. related to Programming.
The internal Operating System is software programmed to communicate with the hardware of the commputer and determines how the user interacts with the computer; and it regulates input, storage, processing, and output.
Early computers had very little memory hence, very small operating systems.
8-Bit Operating Systems (Armory.Com)
History of Operating Systems (Wikipedia.org)
GEOS, 8-bit Operating System
 
-P-
 
PASCAL, BLAISE
Blaise Pascal Quotes to Inspire You
Blaise Pascal Biography
 
Blaise Pascal
PDP Computers
PDP11's on the Bribane Project for Totalisators by Brian Conlan
What is a PDP? (Ken Olson/DEC)
PDP-8 (pdp8.net)
PDP-11 History (telnet.hu)
 
People, Pioneers in Computing, Including Notable Women in Computing Topic is other Web sites having these topics, but this page has names throughout.
Past Notable Women of Computing and Mathematics
PC Computers, Pre-IBM
Pioneers (Wired Magazine's List of Pioneers of Computing)
Pioneers of Computing
 
Also, Programming languages have been indexed alphabetically. PROGRAMMING, Pascal Programming Language All things Pascal Directory of links about the Pascal Open Source>BR> See also cetus-links.org for programming languages.
This language has focus on Macintosh computers OS, most of it, not all of it. Take what you need and also visit cetus-links.
 
ADA is in the A Section. C++ is in the C Section. History of C++ C#. TBA. Programming Resources. -Q-
 
-R-
RITCHIE, DENNIS
Dennis Ritchie Home Page
Interview with Dennis M. Ritchie
Dennis M. Ritchie timeline
Dennis M. Ritchie: From Inventing the Enterprise
 
-S-
 
Shareware, History of
SILICON VALLEY Silicon Valley History (netvalley.com)
Smithsonian Exhibits Smithsonian Institute's Computer History Collection
 
Shortest Path Algorith
See Dijkstra, Edsger
 
STIBITZ, GEORGE R.
George R. Stibitz, Computer Inventor (1904-1995)
George R. Stibitz in Inventors Hall of Fame
George R. Stibitz Curriculum Vitae
George R. Stibitz, Biography
George R. Stibitz, 1904-1995
 
SYSTEM R
System R (mcjones.org)
System R led to the introduction of the SQL language
 
-T-
 
Tech. History (si.edu)
The Charles Babbage Institute
This is located at the University of Minnesota
Many computer subjects including the history of computers...
The Evolution of the Computer
The History of Shareware
The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
The Revolutionaries
The Smithsonian Computer History and Information Technology
Timeline: The History of Computers (Maxmon.com)
Well done! Events influencing the history and development of computing.
Tools for Thought (Howard Rheingold)
 
TOTALISATORS
History of Totalisators by Brian Conlon.
 
TURING, ALAN
The Alan Turing Home Page
Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954)
Alan Turing and COLOSSUS
 
-U-
UNIVAC COMPUTER
Univac Memories (fourmilab.ch)
Book: The Unsung Heroes of the PC Age
 
-V-
 
Virtual Museum of Computing
Viruses: History of Computer Viruses
Wearable Computing at media.MIT.edu
What was the first computer and who built it?"
Wired Magazine:Browse by Person
This is a list not to be missed. Enjoy.
 
von NEUMANN, JOHN LOUIS
John Lewis von Neumann (1903-1957)
John von Neumann
(Click on hardware in the background of this next reference)
von Neumann Digital Computer
 
-W-
WANG, AN
Dr. An Wang (Magnetic Core Memory) (mit.edu)
An Wang, Hall of Fame Inventor Profile
Book: Dr. an Wang Computer Pioneer
The Doctor and His Calculators
About Wang
An Wang: The Core of the Computer Era
Wang system photos
Photo 1968 Wang Calculator
Wang 363E Calculator
Wang BASIC vs. Microsoft BASIC
 
WEB  AKA, WORLD WIDE WEB
History of the Web Beginning at C.E.R.N.
WILKES, MAURICE VINCENT
Maurice Vincent Wilkes (vt.edu)
Maurice Vincent Wilkes, Brief Biography
 
WIRTH, NIKLAUS
Niklaus Wirth (kzoo.edu)
Niklaus Wirth was the inventor of Pascal, and other languages.
 
WOZNIAK, STEVEN
Steven Wozniak Bio. (cs.vt.edu)
Official Website of the "WOZ"
Apple Computer history
 
-X-
XANADU
Project Xanadu
The original hypertext project...
Xanadu Australia: Problem Definition
Xanadu Secrets Become Udanax Open-Source (1999)
Marc Steigler's 1989 Article Published in the February 1990 Edition of Unix Review is about Hypertext Publishing
 
-Y-
-Z-
 ZUSE, KONRAD
Konrad Zuse
(Use the search engine at this next site to put in the name of Konrad Zuse, in order to navigate to this topic.)
A photograph of Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse's Z3 Computer
Konrad Zuse And His Computers
 
Real Knowledge - Your Online Source For Computer Information
 

 

 

 
Learn another language with Rosetta Stone

 

Related Links Having Computer History Significance, and a Hitmill.com Review of the sites at Google's History of Computers List.

small site, with a smattering of information, condensed timeline of 27 entries from just the 20th century by About.com. ABOUT.COM'S SURVEY of computer history site, briefly does a fair job of touching the bare surface of the late historical period of the 20th century with some entries in the 21st century but nothing here about 1600's-1899. Not much depth here, but there is a lot of name dropping. If you need a name, they got 'em. Would be nice to see more Bibliographies, more detail and more depth. Might be suitable for grade school students. Not enough depth for research. This is not a significant computer history site, with omissions of important early works, but is owned by a corporation that can afford to do better.
 
Timeline only from 1939 - 1994 also omits earlier developments. This is a good site for information from that narrow time range and it includes personal information about some of the people involved in computer technology in only the 20th century, so far. Altair, Commodore-64 machines are covered, and other earlier computers such as the machines produced by Konrad Zuse, and his Z4. Site has a push for monetary donations. Commercial site.
 
Pictures Site has many pictures, not all from the public domain, but the pictures are not sourced and I )regret that a site supposedly for students has no source information from where they took/acquired the photographic images. I would like to know if they have permission to use the approx. (stated 50 pictures.?? (Students: you are not to use copyrighted information nor photographs on a Web site without stating the source AND having written permission or you are violating copyright.) This site deserves removal from the list until sourcing or a note about copyright has been included... permissions are necessary, and must be visibly sourced,referencing the copyright holder, by law.
 
Computer HardwareGood coverage of computer hardware and calculating history, early Russian, Australian, German and British machines included in the discussion, along with American machines. Excellent References and Footnotes... This site deserves #1 on Googles list. Wake up, Google team.. take a look. this site has hours of work.
 
Hitmill.com's History of Computers  has been a leader in the History of Computers parade of sites since 1998, raising the bar and challenging others to get better. A 65-year old grandmother hand-coded this page (and this entire domain, which began in 1998) in NotePad, to show students that Web pages can be made without buying software. The site is in the process of adding a timeline and should not be relegated down at the fifth level for it is a quality page with depth, sourcing, footnoting, and Bibliographies in its multiple page structure. Obviously well planned with the research students in mind. This site has grown up, since 1998, and remains a top "History of Computers and Computing Timeline" Web site. A historical site made with raw HTML and no software. Non-commercial, non-corporate site, not asking for money, with a couple of click-ads from Google quietly generating pennies for Grandma's hosting.
 
Historical Timeline of Computer Graphics and Animation
Computing Research Links
Futuristic Computers
History of the Web, Beginning at CERN
 

TIMELINE About Computer History and Related Early Machines and Technologies

(A History of Computers Timeline)
(timeline under development) Again, we cannot over-emphasize that computers were invented and calculating machines were invented all because of man's need to quantify. Those wanting to quantify also needed predictability in the World. Mathematicians used to use a lot of logarithms and had books of algorithms made by a person who did the calculations and such a person was called a "calculator". By the 17th and 18th Centuries we were already migrating gradually into an age where machines would be able to perform the calculations instead of a person. The ideas were coming from mathematicians faster than the technology of steel production and before steel gear technology... the earliest "machines" were designed for wooden "gears". Computer input was designed to be done with punch cards which would be "read" by the machine. The earliest machines could only perform one type of mathematical calculation such as subtraction. Take a look at this timeline and be surprised with how early we had machines that could perform a calculation.

DATE NOTES and LINKS
Era of early Chinese DynastiesAbacus
1450Gutenberg Press
1617Napier's Bones
1642Blaise Pascal, at age 18, Invented hand-powered commercial calculator machine, the Pascaline.
1640'sMechanical Calculators are Manufactured for sale. http://goldenink.com/computersandnetworks.shtml
1670's- attempts to multiply mechanically were made by Gottfried von Liebniz (1646-1716)
Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton
1687
1750's-1850's through 1900Industrial Revolution in England, Europe, United States
1801Jacquard Loom used wooden slat "punch cards" to make patterns on the loom.
1823Charles Babbage started work on the Difference Engine, through funding from the British Government. While he did produce prototypes of portions of the Difference Engine, it was left to Georg and Edvard Schuetz to construct the first working devices to the same design which were successful in limited applications.
1826Photography (in France) Niepce.
1831 Charles Babbage founded the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
1833 In this year, Charles Babbage began his work on his Analytical Engine.
1843 Ada Byron Lovelace computer program to calculate Bernoulli numbers, England
1843Telegraph line established, sent code between Philadelphia and Washington (Morse)(Morse Code)
1864Maxwell's electromagnetic wave theory.
1877Phonograph (Edison)
1884Image Scanner for scanning and transmitting images (Nipkow in Germany)
1885Cathode Ray Tube
1887Motion Picture Camera
1888Gramophone by Berliner
1890Punch cards on computer used for the US Census (Hollerith)
1898Telegraphone, a magnetic recording device. (Poulsen)
1905Electron Tube (Fleming)
1905Theory of Relativity (Einstein)
1926First television (J.L.Baird)
192880-column punch card (Hollerith)
1929BBC begins broadcasting
1957Sputnik I successful satellite launch by Russia on October 4 began the Space Race, the Space Age, and ushered in a panel of scientists for the White House's Panel on Science and Technology called for by U.S. President David D. Eisenhower
1943 Turing COLOSSUS the first programmable computer, England (Great Britain)
1946 ENIAC first electronic computer, in United States of America.
1951 UNIVAC, first computer U.S.A. Government used.
1968Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce are founders of Intel, to make semiconductors, processors, aka "computer chips".
1977Apple computers are first sold commercially to home consumers. United States.
1981IBM computers were sold commercially as "personal computers".
1991Tim Berns-Lee created the World Wide Web at C.E.R.N. in Switzerland

 

 

 
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